nancy and out-of-wedlock births. The Bush Adminis- tration has sought a substantial increase in abstinence-only- until-marriage funds during the welfare reauthorization of 2002. 2Sharon Lerner, “An Orgy of Abstinence: Federal Fund- ing Pushes No-Sex Education Into the Mainstream,” VillageVoice,  August 1-7, 2001. Available at http://www.  Abstinence activists are so extreme that they advocate against mas- turbation, a nearly universal human activity. The National Abstinence Clearinghouse’s “Abstinence Survival Kit” warns  that  “sexual  self-stimulation”  may  “eventually leave the person unable to respond sexually to a real per- son.” “It’s the first sign of sexual addiction,” warns Leslee Unruh, the Clearinghouse’s president. 3Adam Sonfield and Rachel B. Gold, “States' Implemen- tation of the Section 510 Abstinence Education Program, FY 1999,”Family Planning Perspectives,  vol. 33, no. 4 (July/August  2001),  pp.  166-172.  Available  at 4Ibid. 5Ibid, pp. 168-169. 6Mariella Baldo, et al., “Does Sex Education Lead to Ear- lier or Increased Sexual Activity in Youth?” Paper presented at the IXth Annual International Conference on AIDS Berlin, (Geneva: World Health Organization), June 6-10, 1993. 7David Satcher, The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Pro- mote Sexual Health and Responsible Behavior (Washing- ton, DC: Office of the United States Surgeon General, 2001), p. 11. Available at library/sexualhealth/ 8Martha Kempner, “Controversy Over CDC’s Research to Classroom Project,” SIECUS Report, vol. 29, no. 6 (2001), pp. 4-5. 9Ibid., p. 9. 10Ibid., p. 5. 11Ibid., pp. 5-6. 12Martha  Kempner,  “State-Level  Debates  Over  Absti- nence-Only-Until-Marriage,” SIECUS Report, vol. 29, no. 6 (2001), p. 7. 13Kemper, “Controversy,” p. 13. 14Ibid., preface. 15Ibid, pp. 46-47. 16Ibid., p. 19. 17Patrick Buchanan, Syndicated column, June 23, 1983, Cited in Sean Cahill and Erik Ludwig, Courting the Vote: The  2000  Presidential  Candidates’  Positions  on  Gay, Lesbian,  Bisexual  and Transgender  Issues  (New York: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute, 1999), p. 21. 18Kempner, “State-level,” p. 18. 19Ibid., pp. 25-28. 20Ibid., p. 26. 21Ibid., p. 33. 22Ibid., p. 32. 23See  Questions  and  Answers  on  Condom  Effectiveness, CDC Update (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 1997), and Philip Kestelman, and James Trussell, “Effi- cacy of the Simultaneous Use of Condoms and Spermi- cide,” Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 5 (1991), p. 227, both cited in Kempler, “State-level,” pp. 34-35. 24Kempler, “State-level,” p. 31. 25Sex Respect, cited in Kempler, “State-level,” p. 44. 26Kempler, “State-level,” p. 54. 27Ibid. 28Sex  Respect  describes  anal  intercourse  as  “unnatural behavior.”  Of  course,  anal  intercourse  is  a  behavior practiced by both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Ibid., p. 29. 29Ibid., pp. 46-47. 30Ibid., p. 47. 31Susan M. Blake, et al., “Preventing Sexual Risk Behav- iors Among Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 6 (2001), pp. 940-946. 32As a result of such a law, teachers in Merrimack, NH, declined to teach Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night because a female character disguises herself as a man, and declined to show a video about Walt Whitman that mentioned that  he  loved  men.  See  Mary  Bonauto,  Background Information on “No Promo Homo” Policies (Washington, DC: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Educators’ Network, Sep- tember 16, 2002). Available at plates/resources/record.html?section=14&record=42 33Rafael Diaz and George Ayala, Social Discrimination and Health: The  Case  of  Latino  Gay  Men  and  HIV  Risk (New York:  National  Gay  and  Lesbian Task  Force Po l i c y  I n s t i t u t e ,  20 0 1 ) .  Av a i l a b l e  a t 34See South Carolina Code Ann. 59-32-30(A)(5). Cited in Human Rights Watch, Ignorance Only: HIV/AIDS, Human  Rights  and  Federally  Funded  Abstinence-Only Programs in the United States; Texas: A Case Study, vol. 14, no. 5 (September 2002), p. 35. 35See Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 15-1716. Cited in Ibid., p. 35. 36See Ala. Code 16-40A-2. Cited in Ibid., p. 35. 37See Texas Health and Safety Code 163.002(8). Cited in Ibid., p. 35. 38Interview cited in Ibid., p. 36. 39Interview cited in Ibid., pp. 36-37. 40Interview cited in Ibid., p. 37. 41Richard Elovich, “Beyond Condoms…How to Create a Gay Men’s Culture of Sexual Health,” POZ (June 1999). 42National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, “With CDC HIV Infection Rates on the Rise, New NGLTF Report Exam- ines Direct Impact of Discrimination on Latino Gay Men,”  (Washington,  DC:  NGLTF,  July  12,  2001). Available at seID=404 43AIDS Action Council, “Election 2000 Presidential Can- didate  Report,”  (August  1999).  Available  at;  Cyn- thia  Dailard,  “Fueled  by  Campaign  Promises,  Drive Intensifies to Boost Abstinence-Only Education Funds,” The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, vol. 3, no. 2 (April 2000). Available at nals/gr030201.html. 44David Broder, “Bush Defends Gun Record, Pushes Teen Abstinence,” Washington Post,  June 22, 1999, p. A4. 45“Bush Promotes Abstinence for Teenagers,” Associated Press, June 22, 1999. 46Tina Hoff and Liberty Greene, Sex Education in Amer- ica:  A  Series  of  National  Surveys  of  Students,  Parents, Teachers,  and  Principals  (Menlo  Park,  CA:  Henry  J. Kaiser  Family  Foundation,  2000).  Available  at The Public Eye THE PUBLIC EYE FALL  2002 17 By Mitra Rastegar Editorial Note: This article first appeared in Sojourner: The Women’s Forum (Boston, April 2002), pp. 7, 16. Reprinted with the kind permission of the publisher. A re you worried about the destruction of parks and forests in this country? Do you fear rolling blackouts will become a norm in the future? Are you concerned about your child’s overcrowded deterio- rating school? Does the traffic congestion and sprawl drive you crazy? Well, a num- ber of organizations say they have discov- ered  the  single  most  important  step  to countering  these  problems:  restricting immigration. These  groups  go  by  names  like Population-Environment  Balance, NumbersUSA,  Negative  Population Growth,  Carrying  Capacity  Network, and Federation for American Immigration Reform. They put out publications and sponsor television commercials, radio spots and billboard campaigns to warn of the supposed consequences of the immigra- tion-induced “population explosion.” They speak  before  Congress  and  attempt  to affect the positions of mainstream envi- ronmental organizations. Following a rich history of packaging xenophobia in liberal garb, these organi- zations seek to entice environmentalists and others to their anti-immigrant positions. A closer look at their analysis shows that they are more interested in opposing immi- gration than in protecting the environment. They consistently scapegoat immigrants for a whole range social, economic and envi- ronmental ills, often changing their focus Packaging Xenophobia in Liberal Garb: Anti-Immigrant, Anti-Woman “Environmentalism”