Martin Durham, 2007, White Rage: The Extreme Right and American Politics, New York: Routledge, pp, 103-110, 136.

Right-Wing Insugents & Leaderless Resistance

While the essay by Louis Beam popularized the idea of Leaderless Resistance among insurgent right-wing activists, it was not the first appearance of the idea directed at domestic revolt. According to Durham, the idea of Leaderless Resistance surfaced in the mid-1960s through right-wing radio personality Richard Cotton, who later was a “a key figure in the early National Youth Alliance.”

Durham reports that in Cotton’s newsletter in late 1965 he, “recommended a recent broadcast in which he had discussed phantom cells and leaderless resistance. The following year, a report of a conference of a far right group, the Congress of Freedom, described him discussing '"Phantom Cells" as outlined by Col. Amos'.”

===The idea appeared too among the Christian-Patriots Defense League. In February 1984, Jack Mohr wrote a letter to supporters of the group and the affiliated Citizens Emergency Defense System, describing the latter as operating on the basis of leaderless resistance. This meant, he wrote, that each unit was self-sustaining and that it was almost impossible for an infiltrator to destroy the organization as a whole.

===In 1993, a collection of articles concerned with the subject appeared in the pages of the WAR Eagle, a paper which described itself as 'A Voice and Forum for Revolutionary Pan-Aryanism'. It opened with Louis Beam's article, and one of the other contributions was a short piece in support of the tactic by White Aryan Resistance.

But not every contributor agreed. Chicago-based neonazi organizer Art Jones, a Vietnam Vet, dismissed Leaderless Resistance, according to Durham, who reported that Jones blasted it as “an abdication of leadership,” and claiming “all it led to was activists planning 'mindless mayhem' or even their manipulation into acts of violence by federal informants and their subsequent imprisonment.”

===… without centralized discipline, the struggle could not be won. Hitler and Rockwell, he argued, showed the way forward in which the path of legality should not be abandoned unless it became impossible.

The debate over the validity of Leaderless Resistance as a concept, and its demonstrated value as a method, has continued in the insurgent far-right. According to Durham:

===The argument has continued since the 1990s. In 2000 Resistance published an article by Eric Hollyoak. 'The Fallacy of Leaderless Resistance' argued that nothing better defined the 'incompetence of the radical racist resistance' than the idea of leaderless resistance. It was little more than anarchy and, as recent examples demonstrated, quickly degenerated into banditry. It had never worked in history.

Leaderless Counterterrorism Strategy:
The “War on Terror,” Civil Liberties, and Flawed Scholarship

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