The Roots of the Leaderless Resistance Concept

The Cuba Flyers

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In 1961 leaflets were airdropped over Cuba by anti-Castro Cuban exiles and their allies with close ties to the CIA. The leaflets used the concept of Leaderless Resistance and called for the creation of “Phantom Cells” (Celulas Fantasmas). There is no apparent connection between Amoss and the leaflets, according to Michael Paulding, who is writing a book on an early OSS figure and has studied Amoss and his work. Amoss died in November 1961, a few months after the failed CIA-orchestrated Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. Amoss’s Leaderless Resistance essay was republished posthumously in 1962 in Amoss’s INFORM newsletter, having been rewritten from the 1953 original by a freelancer, according to Paulding.


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