Estimating Likelihood of Approved Discriminatory Activity for Each Type of Biased Belief Structure .
Bias can be based on perceptions of ethnicity, race, national origin, religion, creed, gender, sexual orientation, age, class, disability
Non 
Discriminator
Mild 
Discrimination
Strong 
Discriminator
Abusive 
Threatening
Violent Murderous Genocidal
Non 
Prejudiced
++++++++++ +++ ++ + . . .
Mildly 
Prejudiced
+++++++ ++++++++++ +++++ ++ + . .
Strongly 
Prejudiced
+++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ +++ ++ . .
Mildly 
Ideological
++ +++++++ ++++++++++ ++++ +++ . .
Strongly Ideological ++ ++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++ +++++ + .
Mildly 
Supremacist
+ ++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++ +++++++ ++ .
Strongly 
Supremacist
. +++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ +++ +
Mildly 
Hateful
. ++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++ ++
Strongly 
Hateful
. + ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++ ++++
Expulsionist
.
. . ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++ ++++++
Eliminationist
.
. . ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++ ++++++++++

.
Chip Berlet - Political Research Associates - 1998
.
This chart is an expanded version of a concept suggested in Peter I. Rose, They and We: Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States, (New York: Random House, 1966).


Notes to Chart:

Bias and discrimination are based on perceptions of race, religion, ethnicity, gender, or sexual identity. The facts are seldom as important as the perceptions.

Here we define hateful persons as those who support the denial of basic rights and liberties to members of a demonized group. Persons who are hateful are often ideological or supremacist or both, but sometimes are motivated solely by strong prejudice.

An ideological stance is one where the belief structure is more than a package of notions or inclinations but a set of ideas that represent an attempt to explain reality--a worldview. Ideological ideas are "isms." Thus racism, sexism, antisemtism, heterosexism, etc.

Some persons who are prejudiced (and a few who hold ideological or supremacist views) still refuse to engage in discrimination as a matter of principle.

Why "Approved Activity" instead of actual activity? Many bias-motivated attacks are carried out by persons with no direct ties to ideological, supremacist, or hate groups, but who have internalized ideas common in the culture or ideas being circulated in the community under stress in which they live. Also, demagogues in ideological groups often count on local young men (13-25 years old) to actually carry out acts of discrimination or violence.

Why would non-prejudiced people still discriminate? Because of peer pressure in their community.

Prejudiced persons often do not have a coherent ideological basis for their beliefs, while persons with coherent ideological or supremacist views can be defending their power and privilege without having prejudged the group they seek to oppress.

Demonization often leads to scapegoating. Conspiracist allegations claiming a targeted group is plotting against the common good is a specific form of scapegoating.

Expulsionism, separatism, and segregationism are distinct yet related belief structures. Expulsionists here are assumed to be supremacists as well, but there is an emerging separatist ideology which calls for racially-homogenous nation states. As an intellectual current, racial separatism claims not to be supremacist. In practice, it is most often put forward by groups with a supremacist ideology. It most often appears as a form of racial nationalism that calls for racial separatism, including a variety of fascism called the Third Position. In the United States groups promoting racial separatism include White Aryan Resistance and a variety of other neo-nazi formations, the Liberty Lobby, the Nation of Islam, and the Republic of New Africa. Separatism in this chart would be included under the "Strongly Ideological" belief structure. Segregationists would range from "Strongly Ideological" to "Strongly Prejudiced."

Antisemitism has a durable and unique history of appearing at various times as a form of bias based on perceptions of religion, ethnicity, and race. While Jews are not of a single race, their biased critics often project on them a racial coherence that has been a powerful motivating force for discrimination.

The following holds true for all varieties of prejudice and oppression. Replace [antisemitism] with any form of oppression such as [racism] or [sexism] to see the universal validity of the argument. With different forms of oppression, the example groups would also change.

People can be consciously [antisemitic] and overt about it. Such as White Aryan Resistance.

People can be consciously [antisemitic] but covert about it. Such as Liberty Lobby and Spotlight.

People can be unconsciously [antisemitic], but fail to see it and deny it. Such as Pat Buchanan.

People can be unintentionally [antisemitic] by promoting ideas or policies that have the effect of perpetuating antisemitism. Such as Pat Robertson.

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