Antisemitism and the Left

Some Resources for Exploring Scapegoating, Demonization, Apocalypticism, and Conspiracism

Esther Kaplan article: Antisemitism after September 11th, 2001

Collection: Antisemitic Conspiracist Views from the Ultra-Right after September 11th, 2001

Browse articles on Antisemitism

New Internationalist: Special Issue on Judeophobia

Bibliographic Resources

For an Overview

Michael Lerner, The Socialism of Fools: Anti-Semitism on the Left (Oakland: Tikkun Books, 1992). An argument that contemporary anti-Semitism is real and underestimated by the left, and an effort to make a distinction between anti-Semitism and legitimate criticism of Israel.

Esther Kaplan, “Antisemitism after September 11th,” The Public Eye magazine, Vol. 16, No. 2, (Summer 2002).

New Internationalist Magazine, Special Issue on Judeophobia.

Chip Berlet, "ZOG Ate My Brains." New Internationalist (London), Issue 372 (October 2004).

Norman Cohn Traces the Connections

Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (London: Serif, [1967] 1996).

_____, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages, revised and expanded (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, [1957] 1970), with the original subtitle reading: Revolutionary Messianism in Medieval and Reformation Europe and its Bearing on Modern Totalitarian Movements.

 _____, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith, revised and updated (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, [1993] 2001).

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

John Shelton Curtiss, An Appraisal of the Protocols of Zion (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1942).

Walter Laqueur, Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993). Traces early use of the Protocols.

James Ridgeway, Blood in the Face, rev. 2nd, ed. (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1995). Shows how Protocols are incorporated into organized white supremacy.

Stephen Eric Bronner, A Rumor about the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (New York: St. Martins, 2000). A debunking of the Protocols and an exploration of their ongoing appeal and use by the right.

Cesare G. De Michelis, The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the Protocols of the Sages of Zion, trans. Richard Newhouse, English ed., rev. and expanded, Studies in Antisemitism (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, and Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, the Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, 2004). Reconstructs what the original undiscovered forgery may have looked like using textual analysis of several versions.

Will Eisner, The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (New York: WW Norton, 2005). An illustrated history of the invention of the fraud in the 19th century and its circulation across the globe in the century since.

Nazism and Apocalyptic Millenarianism and Millennialism

James M. Rhodes, The Hitler Movement: A Modern Millenarian Revolution (Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1980).

Robert Wistrich, Hitler’s Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985).

Robert Ellwood, “Nazism as a Millennialist Movement,” in Catherine Wessinger, (ed.), Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 2000), pp. 241-260.

David Redles, Hitler’s Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief and the Search for Salvation (New York: New York Univ. Press, 2005).

Stereotyping, Scapegoating, and Demonization

Lise Noël, Intolerance: A General Survey, trans. Arnold Bennett (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, 1994).

James A. Aho, This Thing of Darkness: A Sociology of the Enemy (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1994).

Colette Guillaumin, Racism, Sexism, Power and Ideology (London: Routledge, 1995).

Elizabeth Young–Bruehl, The Anatomy of Prejudices (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1996).

Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan (New York: Vintage, 1996).

David Norman Smith, “The Social Construction of Enemies: Jews and the Representation of Evil,” Sociological Theory, 1996, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 203-240.

Robert S. Wistrich, (ed.), Demonizing the Other: Antisemitism, Racism, and Xenophobia (London: Routledge, [1999] 2003).

Evan R. Harrington, “The Social Psychology of Hatred,” Journal of Hate Studies, Vol. 3, No.1, 2003/04,


Richard Hofstadter, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965).

David Brion Davis, (ed.), The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un–American Subversion from the Revolution to the Present (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1972).

Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown (eds.), Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972).

George Johnson, Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics (Los Angeles: Tarcher/Houghton Mifflin, 1983).

Frank P. Mintz, The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1985).

George E. Marcus, (ed.), Paranoia Within Reason: A Casebook on Conspiracy as Explanation (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1991).

David H. Bennett, The Party of Fear: The American Far Right from Nativism to the Militia Movement (New York: Vintage Books, revised [1988] 1995).

H. Bruce Franklin, M.I.A. or Mythmaking in America (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Lawrence Hill Books, 1992).

Patricia A. Turner, I Heard it Through the Grapevine, Rumor in African-American Culture (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993.

Joel Kovel, Red Hunting in the Promised Land: Anticommunism and the Making of America (New York, Basic Books, 1994).

Daniel Pipes, Conspiracy: How the Paranoid Style Flourishes, and Where It Comes From (New York: Free Press, 1997).

Daniel Pipes, The Hidden Hand: Middle East Fears of Conspiracy (New York: St. Martins, 1998).

Jerry Lembcke, The Spitting Image: Myth, Memory, And The Legacy Of Vietnam (New York: New York Univ. Press, 1998).

Mark Fenster, Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture, (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1999).

Nancy Lusignan Schultz, (ed.), Fear Itself: Enemies Real & Imagined in American Culture (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue Univ. Press, 1999).

Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: Guiford, 2000).

Robert Alan Goldberg, Enemies Within: The Culture of Conspiracy in Modern America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 2001).

Michael Barkun, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America (Berkeley: 2003).

Jerry Lembcke, CNN’s Tailwind Tale: Inside Vietnam’s Last Great Myth (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003)

Significant Periods of Populist Public Conspiracism in the United States

1797–1800 Freemasons/Illuminati (Europe)

1798–1802 Freemasons/Illuminati (U.S.)

1820–1844 AntiMasonry (Early Nativism)

1834–1860 Catholic Immigrants (Nativism–Know Nothings)

1830–1866 Slave Power Conspiracy

1873–1905 Plutocrats and Bankers (“The Octopus”)

1903–1920 Jews (Protocols-Russia)

1919–1935 The International Jew (Protocols-Britain & U.S.)

1919–1925 Anarchists and Bolsheviks

1932–1946 Bankers, Liberal Collectivists, Reds, and Jews

1940–1950 Reds and the End Times

1950–1960 Liberal Internationalists & Reds

1958–1968 Civil Rights Conspiracy

1960–1970 Secret Kingmakers

1963–1970 Assassination Conspiracy Theories

1960–1980 Sex, Drugs, and Rock & Roll

1970–1990 Secret Elites

1975– Secular Humanism: Feminists and Homosexuals

1986­– 1990 Secret Team (Iran-Contra)

1990­– New World Order

2001– Bush/Cheney Coordinated 9/11 Attacks

New Internationalist: Special Issue on Judeophobia

Related to Antisemitic Conspiracism


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